If you cite a work written by three or fewer authors, include all of the authors' last names either in the text or in the parenthetical citation.
(Author, author, and author page number)
Examples: Smith, Thomas, and Kinkade... (133).
The trees...growing forever (Smith, Thomas, and Kinkade 133).
If you cite a work with more than three authors, you may list all of the authors' last names or list the first author's last name followed by et. al.
If you cite more than one work by the same author, add a shortened title for the source you are referencing within the parentheses.
(Author, Shortened Title page number)
Example: Shakespeare's King Lear has been called a "comedy of the grotesque" (Frye, Anatomy 237).
If the author is listed in the text, only (Shortened Title page number) is needed.
Example: For Northrop Frye, one's death is not a unique experience, for "every moment we have lived through we have also died out of into another order" (Double Vision 85).
If you cite multiple works by different authors in one parenthetical reference, cite each work as you normally would and use semicolons to separate the citations.
Example: (Fukuyama 42; McRae 101-33)
If you're using information from a single source more than once in succession (i.e., no other sources referred to in between), you can use a simplified in-text citation.
Cell biology is an area of science that focuses on the structure and function of cells (Smith 15). It revolves around the idea that the cell is a "fundamental unit of life" (17). Many important scientists have contributed to the evolution of cell biology. Mattias Jakob Schleiden and Theodor Schwann, for example, were scientists who formulated cell theory in 1838 (20).
**If using this simplified in-text citation creates ambiguity regarding the source being referred to, use the full in-text citation format.**
When using parenthetical documentation for in-text citations, remember two key points:
When you write information or ideas from a source in your own words, cite the source by adding an in-text citation at the end of the paraphrased portion.
Paraphrasing from One Page
Include a full in-text citation with the author name and page number (if there is one). For example:
Example: Mother-infant attachment became a leading topic of developmental research following the publication of John Bowlby's studies (Hunt 65).
Paraphrasing from Multiple Pages
If the paraphrased information/idea is from several pages, include them. For example:
Example: Mother-infant attachment became a leading topic of developmental research following the publication of John Bowlby's studies (Hunt 50, 55, 65-71).
If your quotation extends to more than four lines as you're typing your essay, it is a long quotation.
Rules for Long Quotations
There are 4 rules that apply to long quotations that are different from regular quotations:
Example of a Long Quotation:
At the end of Lord of the Flies the boys are struck with the realization of their behavior:
The tears began to flow and sobs shook him. He gave himself up to them now for the first time on the island; great, shuddering spasms of grief that seemed to wrench his whole body. His voice rose under the black smoke before the burning wreckage of the island; and infected by that emotion, the other little boys began to shake and sob too. (Golding 186)