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Citation Resources: APA Examples - Images, Video, and Audio

Quick Links - References - Images, Video, and Audio

Images/Visual Works

How to construct references for visual art and online images
Author Date Title Source

Artist.   -or-

Photographer.   -or-


(Year).   -or-

(Year, Month Day).

Title of work [Description].   

Museum Name, Museum Location. URL*  -or-

Site Name. URL   -or-

Department Name, University Name. URL

*Include the URL for artwork from a museum website.

For untitled art, include a description in square brackets in place of the title.


Dali, S. (1931). The persistence of memory [Painting]. Museum of Modern Art, New York, NY, United States.

Lange, D. (1936). Migrant mother [Photograph]. Library of Congress.

Rinaldi, J. (2016). [Photograph series of a boy who finds his footing after abuse by those he trusted]. The Pulitzer Prizes.

Wood, G. (1930). American gothic [Painting]. Art Institute of Chicago, Chicago, IL, United States.

Clipart or Stock Image Example:

GDJ. (2018). Neural network deep learning prismatic [Clip art]. Openclipart.

PowerPoint slides or lecture notes Example:

Housand, B. (2016). Game on! Integrating games and simulations in the classroom [PowerPoint slides]. SlideShare.

APA Manual pp 346-347, Section 10.14

Video (film and TV)

How to construct references for videos (film and tv series)
Author Date Title Source

Director (Director).  -or-

Producer (Executive Producer).   -or-

Host(s) (Host).

(Year).   -or-

(Active time span).   -or-

(Year, Month Day).

Title of work [Description]

Production Company. URL*  -or-

Label. URL   -or-

How to construct references for videos that are part of a greater whole such as an episode of a tv series
Author Date Title Source

Writer (Writer).   -or-

Director (Director).  -or-

Producer (Producer).   -or-

Host(s) (Host).

(Year).   -or-

(Year, Month Day).

Title of episode (Season No., Episode No.)[Description]

In Producer (Executive Producer), Title of TV series. Production Company. URL*  -or-

In Title of podcast. Production Company. URL

*The URL is not needed in most instances.

Film and TV Series Examples:

Johnston, J. (Director). (2011). Captain America: The first avenger [Film]. Paramount.

Simon, D., Colesberry, R.F., & Kostroff Noble, N. (Executive Producers). (2002-2008). The wire [TV series]. Blown Deadline Productions; HBO.

TV Series Episode or Webisode Examples:

Barris, K. (Writer & Director). (2017, January 11). Lemons (Season 3, Episode 120 [TV series episode]. In K. Barris, J. Groff, A. Anderson, E.B. Dobbins, L. Fishburne, & H. Sugland (Executive Producers), Black-ish. Wimore Films; Artists First; Cinema Gypsy Productions; ABC Studios. 

Oakley, B. (Writer), Weinstein, J. (Writer), & Lynch, J. (Director). (1995, May 21). Who shot Mr. Burns? (Part one) (Season 6, Episode 25) [TV series episode]. In D. Mirkin, J.L. Brooks, M. Groening, & S. Simon (Executive Producers), The Simpsons. Gracie Films; Twentieth Century Fox Film Corporation.

APA Manual pp. 342-343, Section 10.12

YouTube or Streaming Video

How to construct references for YouTube and streaming video
Author Date Title Source


(Year, Month Day).

Title of work [Description]

Site Name. URL   


Cutts, S. (2017, November 24). Happiness [Video]. Vimeo.

Fogarty, M. [Grammar Girl]. (2016, September 30). How to diagram a sentence (absolute basics) [Video]. YouTube.

Harvard University. (2019, August 28). Soft robotic gripper for jellyfish [Video]. YouTube.

Miami University. (2013, February 7). Miami University: Love and Honor (trailer) [Video]. YouTube.

APA Manual p. 344, Section 10.12

TED Talks and Webinars

How to construct references for TED Talks and recorded webinars
Author Date Title Source

Speaker or presenter.

(Year).   -or-

(Year, Month Day).

Title of work [Description]

Site Name. URL   -or-

Publisher. URL

**For TED talks posted on YouTube, follow the YouTube/Streaming Video format.

**Cite unrecorded webinars as personal communications (APA Manual Section 8.9).

TED Talk Example:

Gierts, S. (2018). Why you should make useless things [Video]. TED Conferences. make_useless_things

Recorded Webinar Example:

Goldberg, J.F. (2018). Evaluating adverse drug effects [Webinar]. American Psychiatric Association.

APA Manual pp. 343-344, Section 10.12


How to construct references for Podcasts
Author Date Title Source


(Year, Month Day).

Episode Title (Number of Episode) [Audio podcast episode]. In Podcast name. 

Publisher or Production Company. URL


Vogt, P. J., & Goldman, A. (Hosts). (2016, May 12). On the inside (No. 64) [Audio podcast episode]. In Reply all. Gimlet.

Media Type and Author

Who to credit as author
Media Type Include as the Author
Film Director
TV Series Executive Producer(s)
TV Series episode Writer and director of episode
Podcast Host or executive producer
Podcast episode Host of episode
Webinar Instructor
Classical music album or song Composer
Modern music album or song Recording Artist
Artwork Artist
Online Streaming Video Person or group who uploaded the video
Photograph Photographer

Sound Recordings

How to construct references for music albums, songs, and podcasts
Author Date Title Source

Composer(s).   -or-

Artist(s).   -or-


(Year)   -or-

(Year, Month Day).   -or-

(Years active)

Title of work [Description].   -or-

Title of song [Description].   -or-

Title of episode (Episode No.) [Description].

Label.  -or-

On Title of album. Label.   -or-

In Title of podcast. Production Company. URL   

*If the song has no associated album (as in the Childish Gambino example), omit that part of the reference.

*Include a URL in the reference if that is the only means of retrieval, such as with artists who use SoundCloud.

Album Example:

Bowie, D. (2016). Blackstar [Album]. Columbia.

Song Examples:

Childish Gambino. (2018). This is America [Song]. mcDJ; RCA.

Lamar, K. (2017). Humble [Song]. On Damn. Aftermath Entertainment; Interscope Records; Top Dawg Entertainment.  

Podcast Examples:

Full show: Vedantam, S. (Host). (2015-present). Hidden brain [Audio podcast]. NPR.

Episode: Glass, I. (Host). (2011, August 12). Amusement park (No. 443) [Audio podcast episode]. In This American life. WBEZ Chicago.

APA Manual pp. 344-345, Section 10.13

Computer Software, Mobile Apps, and Equipment

How to construct references for computer software, mobile apps, and equipment
Author Date Title Source

Author(s).   -or-

Name of Group.


Title of work (Version No.) [Description].   -or-

Name of apparatus or equipment (Model No.) [Description].   -or-

Title of entry.   

Publisher. URL   -or-

App Store. URL  -or-

Google Play Store. URL  -or-

In Title of work (Version No.) [Mobile app]. Publisher Name or App Store. URL   

Software Example:

Borenstein, M., Hedges, L., Higgins, J., & Rothstein, H. (2014). Comprehensive meta-analysis (Version 3.3.070) [Computer software]. Biostat.

Apparatus or Equipment Examples:

SR Research. (2016). Eyelink 1000 plus [Apparatus and software].

Tactile Labs. (2015). Latero tactile display [Apparatus].

Mobile App Example:

Epocrates. (2019). Epocrates medical references (Version 18.12) [Mobile app]. App Store.

Entry in a mobile app reference work: Epocrates(2019). Interaction check: Aspirin + sertraline. In Epocrates medical references (Version 18.12) [Mobile app]. Google Play Store.

APA Manual pp. 338-340, Section 10.10