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Citation Resources: APA Examples - Multimedia


Visual Art (Paintings, Sculptures, Photographs and Maps)

Author or Artist (Function). (Year the work was created). Title of the work [Type of work]. Place of origin; Repository.


Dali, S. (Artist). (1931). The persistence of memory [Painting]. New York, NY; Museum of Modern Art.

Online Images

Author or Artist (Function). (Year work was created). Title of work [Type of Work]. Retrieved from URL of website


Lange, D. (Photographer). (1936). Migrant mother [Photograph]. Retrieved from


APA Manual pp 209-210, Section 7.07

Video (film)

For films still in theaters or not yet on DVD or video, use Motion Picture as the medium of publication. When referencing a DVD available for purchase, you may include at the end of the reference: Available from URL

Producer(s) (Producer), & Director(s) (Director). (Year). Title of Film [Medium of publication]. Country of Origin: Studio.


Feige, K. & Madani, A. (Producers), & Johnston, J. (Director). (2011). Captain America: The First Avenger [Motion Picture]. United States: Paramount.


Marchant, N. (Producer), & Bolet, B., Kelly, B. & Percival, B. (Directors). (2011) Downton Abbey. [DVD]. Available from

APA Manual p. 209, Section 7.07

Video (television)

Writer(s) (Writer) & Director(s) (Director). (Year of broadcast). Title of Episode [Type of Work]. In Producer(s) (Producer), Title of Television series. Place of production: Studio.


 Egan, D. (Writer), & Alexander, J. (Director). (2005). Failure to communicate [Television series episode]. In D. Shore [Executive producer], House. New York, NY: Fox Broadcasting.

APA Manual p. 210, Section 7.07


Author or Producer Last Name, First Name. (Year, Month Date). Title of the Video [Type of Work]. Retrieved from URL


miamiofohio. (2013, February 7). Miami University: Love and Honor (trailer) [Video file]. Retrieved from

APA Manual p. 215, Example 77 for Video Blog Post

Sound Recordings

To cite a specific song:

Writer(s) (Copyright Year). Title of song [Recorded by Artist, if different from writer]. On Title of album [Medium of recording] Location: Label. (Date of recording, if different from song copyright date). 


lang, k.d. (2008). Shadow and the frame. On Watershed [CD]. New York, NY: Nonesuch Records.  


Writer(s) or Producer(s) (Writer/Producer). (Year, Month Day). Title of podcast [Audio podcast]. Retrieved from URL


Van Nuys, D. (Producer). (2007, December 19). Shrink rap radio [Audio podcast]. Retrieved from

APA Manual pp. 209-210, Section 7.07

Creating a References Page

In APA style your bibliography should be called References.

The reference list should be double-spaced with a hanging indent used for each citation.

Within your References list, your references should be in alphabetical order based on the author's last name.  If there is no author listed, use the title of the source.