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Citation Resources: Chicago Examples - Images, Video, and Audio


When citing images, follow the style for the source where the image was found, such as book, article, website, etc. If there is a photographer or illustrator use their name in place of the author. If there is a caption, use the caption in place of the title of an article, or add the caption title in quotation marks with proper capitalization. Add a page number where the image is found. If a numbered figure is given, add it after the page number.

Image from a book:


Gruen, Bob. “Madison Square Garden, July 1972.” In Life, by Keith Richards with James Fox, color plate 12. New York: Little, Brown and Company, 2010.

Online Images

Author or Artist. "Title of work." Publication. Date of publication. URL.


Estrin, James. “A Worshiper at St. Patrick's Cathedral on Fifth Avenue in Manhattan.” New York Times. November 27, 2011.

Online Work of Art Example:

Dior, Christian. May, 1953. Silk, Length at CB ((a) to waist): 5 3/4 in. (14.6 cm) Length at CB (b): 45 1/2 in. (115.6 cm) New York, Metropolitan Museum of Art. Accessed January 5, 2011.

Video (DVD)


Field of Dreams. Directed by Phil Alden Robinson. 1989; Universal City, CA: Universal Home Video, 1998. DVD.

Cleese, John, Terry Gilliam, Eric Idle, Terry Jones, and Michael Palin. “Commentaries.” Disc 2. Monty Python and the Holy Grail, special ed. DVD. Directed by Terry Gilliam and Terry Jones. Culver City, CA: Columbia Tristar Home Entertainment, 2001.

Chicago Manual of Style Section 14.279

Video (television)


​“Churchill’s Deadly Decision.” Secrets of the Dead. First broadcast May 12, 2010 by PBS. Directed by Richard Lipworth and written by Richard Bond.

Friends. Episode no. 153, first broadcast November 16, 2000 by NBC. Directed by David Schwimmer and written by Scott Silveri.

Chicago Manual of Style Section 14.274

YouTube and Online Multimedia

Identify all elements possible when citing YouTube or online multimedia, including the date of publication or last accessed along with the URL. If citing the recording of an original performance, include the date of the performance. Include the source type (e.g., “video”) and length.


Harwood, John. “The Pros and Cons of Biden.” New York Times video, 2:00. August 23, 2008.

Pollan, Michael. “Michael Pollan Gives a Plant’s-Eye View.” Filmed March 2007. TED video, 17:31. Posted February 2008.

Chicago Manual of Style Section 14.280

Sound Recordings

The Chicago Manual of Style suggests listing recordings in a separate discography (14.12) or under a subheading(14.58) if citing a significant number of items. 

Citing an Entire Album


​Pink Floyd. Atom Heart Mother. Capitol CDP 7 46381 2, 1990, compact disc. Originally released in 1970.

Citing Streaming Music 


Elgar, Edward. “Cello Concerto in E minor, Op. 85.” The Very Best of Jacqueline Du Pre. Performed by Jacqueline Du Pre. EMI Classics 0724358659757, 2008, Naxos streaming audio.



Glass, Ira. “419: Petty Tyrant.” This American Life. Podcast audio, November 12, 2010.

Creating a Bibliography

In Chicago style your cited sources are compiled in a Bibliography.

The bibliography should be double-spaced with a hanging indent used for each citation.

Within your Bibliography, your citations should be in alphabetical order based on the author's last name.  If there is no author listed, use the title of the source.