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Citation Resources: APA Examples - Business databases

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Business Citation Examples in APA 7th Edition (A-L)

AdSpender (Ad$pender)

You will need to change the description based on the type of report you ran.

Kantar Media. (n.d.). Internet display: Peloton exercise equipment/Peloton Tread: treadmill [Peloton digital advertising spend for April 2020] [Data set]. Ad$pender Online. Retrieved June 15, 2020, from

Annual Report, 10-K, Other SEC filings

McDonald’s. (2019). 2018 annual report.

Business Source Complete, EconLit, Other Ebsco databases - Use citation tools on Ebsco site (may require editing, check style guides for help).

CIA World Factbook

Central Intelligence Agency. (2020, June 10). India. In The world factbook. Retrieved June 17, 2020 from

Country Commercial Guides

International Trade Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce. (2019, October 13). Finland. Country Commercial Guide. Retrieved June 17, 2020 from

Factiva - articles found in Factiva should be cited as a normal newspaper or magazine article, there is no need to credit where it was retrieved. 

Fashion Snoops

Fashion Snoops. (2020, May 18). Women’s Retail Overview April/May 2020.

Euromonitor/Passport/Global Market Information Database (GMID)

Homma, A. (2020, February 24). Apparel and footwear in the US [Country report]. Passport. 

Euromonitor. (n.d.). Apparel and footwear USA [Market sizes]. Passport. Retrieved May 20, 2020, from 

Euromonitor. (2018, February 8). Population change as a megatrend driver [Briefing]. Passport. 

Euromonitor.  (n.d.) Apparel and footwear dashboard: Store-based retailing [Chart]. Passport.  Retrieved June 4, 2020, from

D&B Hoovers

Analyst report

Deutsche Bank. (2020, April 28). 3M: Under the mask [Analyst report]. Dun & Bradstreet. 

Company profile

Dun & Bradstreet. (n.d.). Kohl's Corporation [Company profile]. Retrieved May 27, 2020, from 

Industry profile

Some reports are HTML and without a date; some are PDFs with a date.

Dun & Bradstreet. (n.d.). Space research & technology [Industry profile]. Retrieved June 29, 2020, from

MarketLine. (2020, January). Home & garden products in the United States [Industry profile]. Dun & Bradstreet. 

SWOT analysis

Dun & Bradstreet. (2019, December 6). Target Corporation SWOT analysis. 

Global Road Warrior

Reports with a named author at the bottom of the page: 

Main, K. (n.d.). China: The business experience. Global Road Warrior.

Reports with no named author: 

Global Road Warrior. (n.d.) Rwanda: Historical timeline.

Some reports are reprinted from elsewhere, sometimes with slight updates, so indicate that in the Author position: 

U.S. Department of State, & World Trade Press. (2019). Mexico: Human rights report for 2018. Global Road Warrior.


If the report has a unique identifier number, use it in parentheses after the title. In this case, include a more specific description in the brackets than just [Industry report] as is often used elsewhere, because IBIS has risk and other reports as well as global, state, and other levels of industry reports, and sometimes the titles and numbers are the same. 

Diment, D. (2019, December). Corporate wellness services (OD4621) [U.S. specialized industry report] . IBISWorld.

International Financial Statistics Online

International Financial Statistics. (2020). Government finance: Japan 2013-2020 [Data set]. International Monetary Fund. 

Business Citation Examples in APA 7th Edition (M-Z)


MarketLine. (2019). Renewable energy in Mexico [Industry profile]. 

MarketLine. (2019). Immunology influencer network: Influencer analytics 2/27/2020 - 5/27/2020.

Mediamark/MRI University Reporter

When citing Mediamark you must include which study you used (e.g. Spring 2019), the Category (e.g. used in last 6 months total), and the Base (e.g. total adults). 

MRI-Simmons. (2019, Spring). Boxed chocolates bought in last 6 months Ghirardelli [Base: Adults] [Data set]. 

MRI-Simmons. (2019, Spring). Domino's Pizza bought at last 6 months [Base: Adults] [Data set]. 

MRI-Simmons. (2019, Spring). Tablets & e-readers - apps downloaded or used games personally used, last 30 days [Base: Women] [Data set]. 


 Mergent. (n.d.). Hain Celestial Group [Company profile]. Retrieved June 3, 2020, from 

Mergent. (n.d.). Hain Celestial Group: R. Dean Hollis [Executive bio]. Retrieved June 3, 2020, from 


Instead of using the URL from the database, which can only be used at Miami, copy and paste the title of the report into a search engine to find the stable URL that can be used by anyone.

Failla, J. (2020, April). Quick service restaurants - US. Mintel. 

Nexis Uni

Company dossier

LexisNexis. (n.d.). Ford Motor Company [Company profile]. Retrieved May 28, 2020, from

Executive biographies

The Who's Who of Company Directors. (2017, April 6). H. Jay Sarles. NexisUni.

Company information

Zoom Company Information. (2020, May). Ernst & Young Global Limited. NexisUni.

Company lists or directories

Since there is no official title, create a description in square brackets, non-italicized, to describe how you compiled this data. See section 9.22 in the Manual. The square brackets in this case indicate that somebody else searching the resource cannot use these exact words to search for it; but they could figure out what you did.

LexisNexis. (n.d.) [List of automobile companies in Germany, over $200M in sales]. Retrieved June 22, 2020, from

SWOT analysis 

MarketLine. (2020, January 13). Ford Motor Company [SWOT analysis]. NexisUni.


Since there is no official title, create a description in square brackets, non-italicized, to describe how you compiled this data. See section 9.22 in the Manual. The square brackets in this case indicate that somebody else searching the resource cannot use these exact words to search for it; but they could figure out what you did.

Look at the Variable Metadata or View Metadata section in order to get the Source information -- which agency collected the data. The Date is whatever year the data were collected. 

SimplyAnalytics. (2019). [% households consuming imported beer/ale: Drank in last 6 months, for ZIP codes 55416, 55401, and Minneapolis metro area] [Data set]. MRI Consumer Survey US. 

SimplyAnalytics. (2019). [Map of Minneapolis, MN metro with family income $200,000 and over]. Census US. 

SimplyAnalytics. (2019.) [% food - Snack/dessert ice cream & sherbet - Brand Haagen-Daaz, entire US] [Data set]. SimmonsLocal US. 

SimplyAnalytics. (2018). [Map showing # multimarket data - Leisure activities - Current level of interest in major league soccer (MLS) - Somewhat, for Minneapolis-St. Paul DMA]. Scarborough Local Insights. 

Sports Business Research Network/Sports Market Analytics

SBRnet. (n.d.). Basketball: College fan market summary. Sports Market Analytics. Retrieved June 3, 2020, from

SRDS Media Solutions

Media outlet profiles

SRDS Media Solutions. (n.d.). Beloit Daily News [Publication profile]. Retrieved May 22, 2020, from

DMA profiles & maps

SRDS Media Solutions. (2018). Atlanta, GA [DMA profile].

SQAD ratings for TV and radio

Don’t include anything like Inc., LLC, etc. in the author name -- SQAD and not SQAD, Inc. even though it’s listed with Inc. on the PDF report. See p. 296 in the Manual.

SQAD. (2020). Augusta, GA [SQAD TV report]. SRDS Media Solutions. Retrieved May 22, 2020, from


In Statista, you can use the automatically generated citation to start, but it needs to be modified based on the guidelines below. 

Statistics, dossiers, and reports

Look under the Source section for “Survey by” -- that is the author

Daniel Research Group. (2019, September). Unit shipments of mobile personal computers (PCs) and laptops in the United States, from 2013 to 2023 (in millions) [Chart]. Statista.

Anything without a named author: 

Statista. (2020, May). Laptops & tablets [Consumer market outlook]. 


Armstrong, M. (2020, June 4). UK government approval on the slide [Infographic]. Statista. 

US Census Data

Find the permalink to cite the Census table directly whenever possible, rather than the various visualization tools such as Census Business Builder which do not usually have permalinks.

U.S. Census Bureau. (2017). Construction: Summary statistics for the US, states, and selected geographies (Table EC1723BASIC) [Data set]. U.S. Department of Commerce.

U.S. Census Bureau. (n.d.). QuickFacts: Madison city, Wisconsin. U.S. Department of Commerce. Retrieved June 18, 2020, from

U.S. Census Bureau. (n.d.). Census business builder: Small business edition - 3.0.1 [Map showing restaurants in the Dane County, WI area and surrounding counties].  U.S. Department of Commerce. Retrieved June 18, 2020, from

Value Line

Look at the bottom of the company’s stock page for the dates of the PDF reports -- usually approximately quarterly. Those are the archived reports and should be the preferred date.

Value Line. (2020, May 22). Delta Air Lines. Value Line Investment Survey.

Wharton Research Data Services (WRDS) data

Since the title of the dataset is not very descriptive of your particular data retrieved, include a description of the variables you used so that somebody else could figure out what you did. 

Standard & Poor’s. (n.d.). Compustat daily updates - fundamentals annual [Microsoft Corporation: Income statement items - January 2015 to January 2020] [Data set]. Capital IQ. Retrieved June 3, 2020, from 

The Center for Research in Security Prices. (n.d.). CRSP daily stock [Tesla Motors stock prices from 2007 to 2020] [Data set]. Retrieved June 3, 2020, from


The examples on this guide are adapted from:

Schemm, N., Dellenbach, M., Grisham, Z., Hageman, M., Tingle, N., Trowbridge, M., & Wheatley, A. (2020). APA 7th ed. citation for business sources.