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Citation Resources: APA Examples - Electronic


Author(s). (Year). Title of book. [Reader version, if available]. DOI or Retrieved from URL. 


Briot, A. (2011). Marketing fine art photography. Retrieved from 


APA Manual p. 203, Section 7.02

Articles in Scholarly Journals with a DOI

Author(s). (Year). Title of article. Title of Journal, Volume(Issue), page range. doi:0000000/000000000000

Most online databases will provide a DOI for journal articles.


Shullenberger, G. (2008). That obscure object of desire: Machu Picchu as myth and commodity. Journal of Latin American Cultural Studies, 17(3), 317-333. doi:10.1080/13569320802544237

APA Manual pg. 198, Section 7.01

Articles in Scholarly Journals with a URL

If no DOI is available, include the URL in the citation.

Author(s). (Year). Title of article. Title of Journal, Volume(Issue), page range. Retrieved from URL of journal home page


Guéguen, N., Jacob, C., & Morineau, T. (2010). What is in a name? An effect of similarity in computer-mediated communication. Electronic Journal of Applied Psychology, 6(2), 1-4. Retrieved from


APA Manual p. 199, Section 7.01

Articles in Popular Magazines

Author(s). (Year, Month Day). Title of article. Title of Magazine, Volume(Issue), page range. Retrieved from URL of Magazine home page


Lyons, D. (2011, July 4). Who needs humans? Newsweek, 158(1/2), 32. Retrieved from

APA Manual p. 200, Section 7.01

Web Sites

Entire Web site:

When citing an entire website, you do not need to add a reference for the Web site, instead, you only need to provide the URL of the site in the text.


Kidspsych is a wonderful interactive website for children (

Page on a Web site:

Author(s). (Publication or Last Revision date). Title of documentRetrieved from URL of Web site


Almasy, S. (2011, July 21). Could the moon provide clean energy for Earth? Retrieved from

When no author is listed, move the title to the front of the citation:

New child vaccine gets funding boost. (2001). Retrieved from

If no date is available, use n.d.:

Heuristic. (n.d.). In Merriam-Webster’s online dictionary (11th ed.). Retrieved from


APA Web site

Newspaper Articles/News Web Sites

Author(s). (Year, Month Day). Title of article. Title of Newspaper. Retrieved from URL of newspaper home page 


Brody, J.E. (2007, December 11). Mental reserves keep brain agile. The New York Times. Retrieved from


APA Manual p. 200, Section 7.01

Tweets and Facebook Updates

For citations of Tweets and Facebook updates, it’s best to list the citation under the author's user name as written on Twitter and Facebook, followed by the date the Tweet or status was posted. For Tweets the entire text should be included in the place of the title, while Facebook updates may list the entire status or, if the status is very long, a truncated version of the post in the title position. For clarity, it’s helpful to provide a description of form inside brackets, such as Twitter post or Facebook update.


User name. (Year, Month Day). Entire text of Tweet exactly as it appears in Twitter [Twitter post]. Retrieved from URL


BarackObama. (2012, February 9). Today President Obama announced a landmark foreclosure settlement with major banks to help struggling homeowners [Twitter post]. Retrieved from!/BarackObama/status/167690595870052352


User name. (Year, Month Day). Status update [Facebook update]. Retrieved from URL


Barack Obama. (2009, October 9). Humbled. [Facebook update]. Retrieved from

Suggestions from the APA Blog

Encyclopedia Entries

Author(s). (Year). Title of article/entry. In Name of editor(s) (Ed.), Title of encyclopedia (Edition, Vol. number, pp. page range). Retrieved from URL

If no author's name is provided, begin the citation with the title of the entry. If no date is provided, use n.d. If no editor is provided, place the Title after 'In' following the Year. If page numbers are not included, they may be left out of the citation.

Title of article/entry. (Year) In Title of encyclopedia (Edition, Vol. number, pp. page range). Retrieved from URL


Poverty and Environmental Hazards. (2011). In S. M. Alters (Ed.), World Poverty(2010 ed., pp. 123-136). Retrieved from

APA Manual pp. 202-205, Section 7.02

Government Documents

If a report number exists, place it in parentheses after the title. 

Author(s) or Government Agency. (Year). Title of Publication or Web site (Report Number). Retrieved from name of Agency website (if different than the author): URL


U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. (2003). Managing asthma: A guide for schools (NIH Publication No. 02-2650). Retrieved from


APA Manual pp. 205-206, Section 7.03

Creating a References Page

In APA style your bibliography should be called References.

The reference list should be double-spaced with a hanging indent used for each citation.

Within your References list, your references should be in alphabetical order based on the author's last name.  If there is no author listed, use the title of the source.