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Citation Resources: AMA Examples - Audiovisual

Quick Links: AMA References - Audiovisual

Images/Visual Works

How to construct references for visual art and online images
Author Title Source Date

Artist.   -or-

Photographer.   -or-


Title of page or object.

Clarifying information if necessary. Title of website. 

Published Month day, year. Accessed Month day, year. URL  - or -

Updated Month day, year. Accessed Month day, year. URL

  • If the image was found in a book, journal article or entry in a database, do not cite the image individually but give the citation details for the book/article/etc. Treat it as though it was a direct quote.
  • If you are not sure who is responsible for the image, omit the authors and begin with the title of the image.
  • If the image does not have a title, give a description of the image (e.g.: Photograph of a boy holding a fish).


  1. UCF Libraries. Research lifecycle and University of Central FL. Infographic. University of Central Florida. Updated June 23, 2017. Accessed January 11, 2020.
  2. California Deparment of Public Health. West Nile Virus transmission cycle. 2018. Image reproduced in: Vector-borne diseases. California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment. Updloaded February 11, 2019. Accessed January 11, 2020.
  3. Slide 37 - Solvent, nummular eczema. Image. Centres for Disease Control and Prevention. Updated April 17, 2001. Accessed September 3, 2020.

AMA Manual, Section 4.2


How to construct references for videos 
Author Title Source Source

Writer.   -or-

Director.  -or-

Producer.   -or-


Title of Video. 

Production Company; -or-


Publication Date. Accessed Month day, year. URL -or-

Publication Date. URL


  1. Smith R. Evidence-Based Medicine: An Oral History. The JAMA Network and the BMJ. 2014. Accessed October 14, 2016.
  2. Moyers B. On Our Own Terms: Moyers on Dying. DVD. Thirteen/WNET; 2000.
  3. Bernstein Fant B, Fant L. The American Sign Language Phrase Book With DVD. McGraw-Hill Education; 2011. 

AMA Manual, Section 3.14.1

YouTube or Streaming Video

How to construct references for YouTube and streaming video
Author Title Source Source


Title of the video.


Publication Date. Accessed Month day, year. URL


  1. AsapSCIENCE. How To Learn Faster. YouTube. September 28, 2017. Accessed June 8, 2018.
  2. Harvard University. (2019, August 28). Soft robotic gripper for jellyfish. YouTube. August 28, 2019. Accessed October 29, 2019.


How to construct references for audiobooks
Author Title Source Date
Author(s) Title of book.

Publisher;  -or-

Format. Publisher;


Editor, ed.   -or-

Editors, eds.

Title of book.

 Publisher;   -or-

Vol no. Nth ed. Publisher;



  1. Skloot R. The Immortal Life of Henrietta Lacks. Audiobook. Random House Audio; 2010.

AMA Manual, Section 3.12.11

Media Type and Author

Who to credit as author
Media Type Include as the Author
Film Director
TV Series Executive Producer(s)
TV Series episode Writer and director of episode
Podcast Host or executive producer
Podcast episode Host of episode
Webinar Instructor
Classical music album or song Composer
Modern music album or song Recording Artist
Artwork Artist
Online Streaming Video Person or group who uploaded the video
Photograph Photographer

Creating a Reference List Page

In AMA style your bibliography should be called Reference List.

Within your Reference List, your references should be listed in numerical order (two references should not be combined under a single reference number) as opposed to alphabetically. The numerical order is based on the order in which the sources were first cited in the document.

Do not begin the reference list on a new page, but place it at the end of your document, after a space or a line. It follows any article information or acknowledgments. Put the word "References" in all caps, and in line with the left-hand margin. Format the numbers as per normal numbering style, single spaced.

Podcasts and Other Audio


  1. Interview with Charles Harding, author of "Breast Cancer Screening, Incidence, and Mortality Across US Counties," and Joann G. Elmore, author of "Effect of Screening Mammography on Cancer Incidence and Mortality". JAMA Intern Med. July 6, 2015. Accessed June 18, 2019.
  2. Bauchner H. Editor's audio summary. JAMA. March 5, 2019. Accessed March 10, 2019.
  3. Nate. The Show About Science. Butterflies with Doug Taron. October 11, 2016. Accessed January 10, 2019.

AMA Manual, Section 3.14.2

Computer Software, Mobile Apps, and Interactive Games

How to construct references for computer software, mobile apps, and interactive games
Title Source Date Access Information

App Name.  -or-

Title of game.


Publication or Updated date.


Accessed Month day, year. URL 


  1. JN Listen app. American Medical Association. Updated March 1, 2019.
  2. Davis's Drug Guide With Updates & Calculators app. Version 1.18. Unbound Medicine Inc. Updated September 25, 2015.
  3. That Dragon, Cancer. Numinous Games 2016. Accessed August 17, 2016.

AMA Manual, Section 3.14.3