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Citation Resources: AMA Examples - Online and Electronic

eBooks and Audiobooks

How to construct references for ebooks and audiobooks
Author Title Source Date
Author(s) Title of book.

Publisher;  -or-

Format. Publisher;

Year. DOI or URL

Editor, ed.   -or-

Editors, eds.

Title of book.

 Publisher;   -or-

Vol no. Nth ed. Publisher;

Year. DOI or URL


  • Volume number is only needed if there is more than one volume. Additionally, the Edition number is only needed if it is not the first edition of the book. 
  • The Accessed date is only needed if you are using a URL
  • The Format is included for other book versions including e-readers, audiobooks, and books on CD.


  1. Vieira AR. Genetic Basis of Oral Health Conditions. Springer International Publishing; 2019. doi:10.1007/978-3-030-14485-2
  2. World Health Organization. Health Worker Roles in Providing Safe Abortion Care and Post-abortion Contraception. World Health Organization; 2015. Accessed August 12, 2020.
  3. Skloot R. The Immortal Life of Henrietta Lacks. Audiobook. Random House Audio; 2010.

AMA Manual, Section 3.12.11

Chapter in an Edited Book

How to construct references for chapters from edited books
Chapter Author Chapter Title  Source Date, Page Numbers, and URL
Author(s). Title of Chapter

In: Editor, ed, Title of book. Publisher;   -or-

In: Editors, eds. Title of book. Nth ed. Publisher;

Year:page range or chapter number. Accessed Month day, year. URL


  1. Sudarsky L. Gait and balance disorders. In: Kasper DL, Fauci AS, Longo DL, Hauser SL, Jameson JL, Loscalzo J, eds. Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine. 19th ed. McGraw-Hill; 2015;chap 32. Accessed February 10, 2016.

AMA Manual, Section 3.12.11

Articles in Scholarly Journals

How to construct references for scholarly articles
Author Title Journal Abbreviation Issue Specifics
Author(s). Title of article.

Journal Title Abbreviation.

Year;volume(Issue):page range. DOI


Year;volume(Issue):page range. Accessed Month day, year. URL

**Some online journals do not have page numbers. Use the article number instead. Reference 3 is an example.

  1. Economopoulos KJ, Brockmeier SF. Rotator cuff tears in overhead athletes. Clin Sports Med. 2012;31(4):675-692. doi:10.1016/j.csm.2012.07.005
  2. Finnan RP, Crosby LA. Partial-thickness rotator cuff tears. J Shoulder Elbow Surg. 2010;19(4):609-616. Accessed April 26, 2012.
  3. Ho DTN, Le TPT, Wolbers M, et al. Risk factors of Streptococcus suis infection in Vietnam. A case-control study. PLoS One. 2011;6(3):e17604. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0017604

AMA Manual, Section 3.11

Theses and Dissertations

How to construct references for theses and dissertations
Author Title Type Source and Access Information

Title of thesis or dissertation.

Dissertation.  -or-

Master's thesis.

University or Institution; Year. Accessed Month day, year. URL

*If a thesis has been published, it should be written in the format of a book. 


  1. Ghanbari S. Integration of the Arts in STEM: A Collective Case Study of Two Interdisciplinary University Programs. Dissertation. University of California; 2014. Accessed October 14, 2016.

AMA Manual, Section 3.13.4

Newspaper Articles/News Releases

How to construct references for online newspaper articles
Author Title Source Date and Access Information

Article Title

Newspaper name.

Publication Month day, year. Accessed Month day, year. URL


  1. Scott M. More than 60 treated in hospital after Townsville music festival. The Australian. May 7, 2019. Accessed September 7, 2020.

  2. Ikonomou T. Townsville’s rising obesity numbers among shocking health statistics. Townsville Bulletin. November, 14, 2018. Accessed September 9, 2020.

News and media releases take the following format:

  1. Examining how common depression symptoms are in adults before, during COVID-19 pandemic. News release. JAMA For the Media. September 2, 2020. Accessed September 7, 2020.
  2. Teleheath, e-prescribing arrangements must be extended. News release. Australian Medical Association. September 3, 2020. Accessed September 7, 2020.

AMA Manual, Sections 3.13.1 and 3.15.10

Encyclopedia Entries

How to construct references for Pharmacopoeia (encyclopedia and dictionary entries)
Entry Author Title Source Publication Date and Access Information
Author(s). Title of entry.

In: Editor, ed. Title of book. Vol no. Nth ed. Publisher;   -or-

In: Editors, eds. Title of book. Vol no. Nth ed. Publisher; 

Year. Accessed Month day, year. URL

Name of Group  Title of entry. In: Title of book. Vol no. Nth ed. Publisher; 

Year. Accessed Month day, year. URL

*If no author is available, start with the entry title. Only include edition and volume information within the citation if it is available. 


  1. Uretsky S. Antihistamines. In: Blanchfield DS, Longe JL, eds. The Gale Encyclopedia of Medicine. Vol 1. 2nd ed. Gale; 2002. Accessed October 4, 2021.

Government Reports

How to construct references for government, technical, or research reports
Author Title Source Date and Access Information

Author(s)   -or-

Government Agency

Title of report.

Name of Issuing Bureau, Agency, or Department;

Publication year. Publication Number. Accessed Month day, year. URL


  1. National Cancer Institute. Taking time: Support for people with cancer. U.S. Dept. of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health. 2019. NIH Publication 18-2059. Accessed October 4, 2021.

AMA Manual, Section 3.13.2

Creating a Reference List Page

In AMA style your bibliography should be called Reference List.

Within your Reference List, your references should be listed in numerical order (two references should not be combined under a single reference number) as opposed to alphabetically. The numerical order is based on the order in which the sources were first cited in the document.

Do not begin the reference list on a new page, but place it at the end of your document, after a space or a line. It follows any article information or acknowledgments. Put the word "References" in all caps, and in line with the left-hand margin. Format the numbers as per normal numbering style, single spaced.

Online vs Print References

In AMA style, online and print references are formatted largely the same. All references generally include the author, title, source, and date, with the source element showing the difference between online and print. Online source elements will include their corresponding DOI and URL when available. 


How to construct references for websites
Author Title Source Date and Access Information


Name of Group.

Title of work.

Site Name. 

Publication date. Accessed Month day, year. URL

  • If no author is available, start with the title of the work.
  • If an updated date is available, note it between the publication date and access date.


  1. International Society for Infectious Diseases. ProMED-mail. Accessed February 10, 2016.
  2. Charlton G. Internal linking for SEO: examples and best practices. SearchEngineWatch. Accessed February 10, 2016.
  3. Zika travel information. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. January 26, 2016. Updated August 11, 2016. Accessed June 18, 2019.

AMA Manual, Section 3.15.3

Tweets and Facebook Updates

How to construct references for social media
Author Title Date Access Information

Twitter and Instagram:



Author Facebook page.

Name of Group Facebook page.

Content of the post.

Publication Month day, year.

Accessed Month day, year. URL

If the tweet or status update includes an image, a video, a poll, or a thumbnail image with a link, indicate that in brackets after the title: [Image attached], [Video attached], [Thumbnail with link attached].

Tweet Example:

  1. @BarackObama. (2012, February 9). Today President Obama announced a landmark foreclosure settlement with major banks to help struggling homeowners. February 9, 2012. Accessed February 15, 2012.

Facebook Post Example:

  1. Mayo Clinic Sports Medicine Facebook page. #RotatorCuff tears are among the most common shoulder injuries, particularly in individuals who engage in activities that require repetitive arm motions. Discover the possible treatment options for a torn rotator cuff: Accessed March 4, 2019.

AMA Manual, Section 3.15.4

Conference Sessions and Presentations

How to construct references for conference sessions and presentations
Author Title Conference Details Access Information
Author(s). Title of article.

Type of contribution presented at: Name of Conference. Date of conference; Year; City, Country or State Abbreviation.

Accessed Month, day, year. URL   -or-

Videocast/Transcript/Abstract available at: URL

Type of contribution is flexible (e.g., “Conference session,” “Paper presentation,” “Poster session,” “Keynote address”).


Papers presented at a conference, symposium or meeting, unpublished or only available from the conference website

  1. Maddox S, Hurling J, Stewart E, Edwards A. If mama ain't happy, nobody's happy: the effect of parental depression on mood dysregulation in children. Paper presented at: Southeastern Psychologica Association 62nd Annual Meeting; March 30-April 2, 2016; New Orleans, LA.

  2. Pearson J. Fat talk and its effects on state-based body image in women. Poster presented at: Australian Psychological Society Congress; September 21-30, 2018; Sydney, Australia.

  3. Baydorova I, Collins H, Ait Saadi, I. Matching student and supervisor expectations in Malaysian doctoral education. Paper presented at: Australian Association for Research in Education Conference; November 26-30, 2017; Canberra, Australia. Abstract available at:

Published papers

Papers from conferences, symposia and meetings are usually published as part of a special issue of a journal, as a monograph (book) of the conference proceedings, or as a document on a website. Once a presentation is published, use the pattern for the book, journal, or other medium in which they are published.

  1. Morgan R, Meldrum K, Bryan S, et al. Embedding digital literacies in curricula: Australian and Malaysian experiences. In: Teh GB, Choy SC, eds. Empowering 21st century learners through holistic and enterprising learning: selected papers from Tunku Abdul Rahman University College International Conference 2016. Springer Singapore; 2017:11-19.

  2. Huang G-M, Huang K-Y, Lee T-Y, Tzu-Ya Weng J. An interpretable rule-based diagnostic classification of diabetic nephropathy among type 2 diabetes patients. BMC Bioinformatics. 2015;16(suppl 1):S5. Selected articles from the Thirteenth Asia Pacific Bioinformatics Conference (APBC 2015). doi:10.1186/1471-2105-16-S1-S5

(Example 5 shows an article from a special issue of the journal that has been entirely dedicated to publishing papers from the conference). 

Online conferences and webinars

  1. Gunn E, Kendall-Taylor J, Vandenburg B. Taking author instructions to the next level. Council of Science Editors webinar. September 10, 2015. Accessed March 15, 2016.

AMA Manual, Sections 3.13.8 and 3.13.9


How to construct references for blogs
Author Title Date Access Information


Title of blog post. Title of website blog.

Publication Month day, year.

Accessed Month day, year. URL


  1. Gray T. Advice after mischief is like medicine after death. AMA Style Insider blog. February 11, 2019. Accessed March 10, 2019.

AMA Manual, Section 3.15.4

Apps and Interactive Videos

  1. Davis’s Drug Guide With Updates & Calculators app. Version 1.18. Unbound Medicine Inc. Updated September 25, 2015.

 AMA Manual, Sections 3.14.3