The American Mathematical Society suggests the use of a document preparation system called LaTeX. If you use LaTeX you can download different author packages that will help you format your document for different book series or journals.
Physics does not have a current standard style, but those submitting manuscripts to American Institute of Physics (AIP) journals utilize AIP Style Manual, 4th edition (c) 1990-1997. It employs a numbered, superscript, in-text format that references a list at the end of the publication. See "Footnotes and References" section on page 11 of the PDF manual for details. Note: Journal titles are always abbreviated. Appendix G (page 49 of the PDF) of the Style Manual offers a list of journal abbreviations. You can find other tools to assist with journal abbreviations in the box to the left.
In the sciences and some social sciences, there are fewer standard styles. Often different publishers will have different styles, and there may not be one standard for each discipline.
Some citation styles require you to use the journal abbreviation instead of the full title. Use these websites to help you find the abbreviations.